For a small island, Sri Lanka has an extensive terrestrial wild life population. There are 102 species of mammals of which 14 species are endemic to the country. Another 12 species have been introduced. Mammals are extensively distributed in the country according to the diverse climatic, Geographic and vegetation of the island.
The largest and perhaps best known of the Srilankan mammal is the Elephant. The Sri Lankan elephant is sub specie of Asian elephants which is endemic, known as “Elephas Maximas Maximas”. Presently there are 6000-7000 elephants dwelling in the Srilanka.
here are four species of cat in Srilanka, of which the leopard is the biggest and the top predator, known as Panthura Paradus Kotiya. Yala National park Block 1 is known to have the highest density of leopard in the world. Fishing cat, jungle cat and rusty spotted cat are other three of cat family.
The Sloth Bear is the most elusive animal in the island. They appear to have very poor eye sight and not very developed hearing. So when a sloth bear looks for his food and unexpectedly finds humans close to his food source, it becomes panic and attacks. They are good climbers and will scramble up trees to considerable height to obtain fruit or in search of bees nest.
Srilanka has five species of deer, the spotted deer, Sambhur Deer, Barking Deer, Hog Deer and Mouse Deer.
Four species of monkeys can found, Slender Loris, torque macaques, Purple faced leaf monkey and grey languor.
Some of other Wild Species
Pangolin, Palm squirrel, Porcupine, Wild Boars, Old Boars, Buffalos, Palm Cat, Ring tailed civet, Bats, Shrews, Water Monitors, Land Monitors, Crocodiles, Mongooses are very common and to name a few.
Many ornithologists have written on the birds of Sri Lanka in the two hundred fifty years.
435 bird species recorded and 143 species are common to both Srilanka and India. And 21 species are endemic to Srilanka. Such as Srilankan Malkoha, Srilanka Blumagpie, White headed starling, Srilanka jungle fowl, Srilanka spur fowl to name a few.
The migratory birds are also coming to Sri Lanka from the North Pole during the winter season and stay until winter ends. Because of after Sri Lanka there is no land mass in the southern region up to Antarctica. Some of the Migratory birds are regular visitors, they come every year to that particular are and even some to that particular tree as well where it lived.