Areas that carry unusually high number of endemic species Worldwide are referred as biodiversity hotspots. Srilanka is one of 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world.

More than 8% of the land declared as National parks.

There are four main types of natural vegetation in Sri Lanka. Thorn forests, Dry Zone tropical forest, Wet Zone forests and wet zone upper hills forests. In addition to that wetlands and mangroves can be seen.

The most extensive vegetation type in Sri Lanka is the dry zone tropical forests.

The wet zone forests are to be found in the central and south western parts of the country.


Sri Lanka is a significant centre of endemism, some of its plants having unique characteristics. 4143 species of flowering plants, about 75% of them are indigenous.  And 830 species are endemic. Among the most beautiful indigenous flowers, katu imbul Ehela, Kinihiriya, Binara are relatively well known.

The orchids of Srilanka’s are recognized for their beautiful flowers.171 species of orchids can be found in Srilanka out of 65 are endemic. Bamboo orchid, vesak mal, daffodil orchid and fox-tail orchid produce large colorful flowers.

Several plants such as mango, jak, margosa, tamarind and beli were introduced to the island from india as well as some crops, e.g., Kurakkan, cowpea and sesame.